Excel Math Functions
Basic Description
The Excel Math Functions are used to carry out many of the common mathematical calculations, including basic arithmetic, conditional sums & products, and the trigonometric ratios. Mathematicians may also find the Excel Statistical Functions and Excel Engineering Functions useful. The tables below list all the current built-in Excel math functions, grouped into categories, to help you to find the function you need. If you select a function name, this will take you to a full description of the function, with examples of use and common errors.
Note that some of the Excel math functions listed below are new to Excel 2007, Excel 2010 or Excel 2013, so are not available in earlier versions of Excel.
Basic Mathematical Operations | |
SUM | Returns the sum of a supplied list of numbers |
PRODUCT | Returns the product of a supplied list of numbers |
POWER | Returns the result of a given number raised to a supplied power |
SQRT | Returns the positive square root of a given number |
QUOTIENT | Returns the integer portion of a division between two supplied numbers |
MOD | Returns the remainder from a division between two supplied numbers |
AGGREGATE | Performs a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a list or database, with the option to ignore hidden rows and error values (New in Excel 2010) |
SUBTOTAL | Performs a specified calculation (eg. the sum, product, average, etc.) for a supplied set of values |
Basic Numeric Information | |
ABS | Returns the absolute value (ie. the modulus) of a supplied number |
SIGN | Returns the sign (+1, -1 or 0) of a supplied number |
GCD | Returns the Greatest Common Divisor of two or more supplied numbers |
LCM | Returns the Least Common Multiple of two or more supplied numbers |
Conditional Sums | |
SUMIF | Adds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy a given criteria |
SUMIFS | Adds the cells in a supplied range, that satisfy multiple criteria (New in Excel 2007) |
Advanced Mathematical Operations | |
SUMPRODUCT | Returns the sum of the products of corresponding values in two or more supplied arrays |
SUMSQ | Returns the sum of the squares of a supplied list of numbers |
SUMX2MY2 | Returns the sum of the difference of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays |
SUMX2PY2 | Returns the sum of the sum of squares of corresponding values in two supplied arrays |
SUMXMY2 | Returns the sum of squares of differences of corresponding values in two supplied arrays |
SERIESSUM | Returns the sum of a power series |
Rounding Functions | |
CEILING | Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to a multiple of significance |
CEILING.PRECISE | Rounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance (New in Excel 2010) |
ISO.CEILING | Rounds a number up, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance. (New in Excel 2010) |
CEILING.MATH | Rounds a number up to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance (New in Excel 2013) |
EVEN | Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to the next even number |
FLOOR | Rounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to a multiple of significance |
FLOOR.PRECISE | Rounds a number down, regardless of the sign of the number, to a multiple of significance (New in Excel 2010) |
FLOOR.MATH | Rounds a number down, to the nearest integer or to the nearest multiple of significance (New in Excel 2013) |
INT | Rounds a number down to the next integer |
MROUND | Rounds a number up or down, to the nearest multiple of significance |
ODD | Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to the next odd number |
ROUND | Rounds a number up or down, to a given number of digits |
ROUNDDOWN | Rounds a number towards zero, (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to a given number of digits |
ROUNDUP | Rounds a number away from zero (ie. rounds a positive number up and a negative number down), to a given number of digits |
TRUNC | Truncates a number towards zero (ie. rounds a positive number down and a negative number up), to the next integer. |
Matrix Functions | |
MDETERM | Returns the matrix determinant of a supplied array |
MINVERSE | Returns the matrix inverse of a supplied array |
MMULT | Returns the matrix product of two supplied arrays |
MUNIT | Returns the unit matrix for a specified dimension (New in Excel 2013) |
Random Numbers | |
RAND | Returns a random number between 0 and 1 |
RANDBETWEEN | Returns a random number between two given integers |
Trigonometry Functions | |
PI | Returns the constant value of pi |
SQRTPI | Returns the square root of a supplied number multiplied by pi |
DEGREES | Converts Radians to Degrees |
RADIANS | Converts Degrees to Radians |
COS | Returns the Cosine of a given angle |
ACOS | Returns the Arccosine of a number |
COSH | Returns the hyperbolic cosine of a number |
ACOSH | Returns the inverse hyperbolic cosine of a number |
SEC | Returns the secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013) |
SECH | Returns the hyperbolic secant of an angle (New in Excel 2013) |
SIN | Returns the Sine of a given angle |
ASIN | Returns the Arcsine of a number |
SINH | Returns the Hyperbolic Sine of a number |
ASINH | Returns the Inverse Hyperbolic Sine of a number |
CSC | Returns the cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013) |
CSCH | Returns the hyperbolic cosecant of an angle (New in Excel 2013) |
TAN | Returns the Tangent of a given angle |
ATAN | Returns the Arctangent of a given number |
ATAN2 | Returns the Arctangent of a given pair of x and y coordinates |
TANH | Returns the Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number |
ATANH | Returns the Inverse Hyperbolic Tangent of a given number |
COT | Returns the cotangent of an angle (New in Excel 2013) |
COTH | Returns the hyperbolic cotangent of an angle (New in Excel 2013) |
ACOT | Returns the arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013) |
ACOTH | Returns the hyperbolic arccotangent of a number (New in Excel 2013) |
Exponentials & Logarithms | |
EXP | Returns e raised to a given power |
LN | Returns the natural logarithm of a given number |
LOG | Returns the logarithm of a given number, to a specified base |
LOG10 | Returns the base 10 logarithm of a given number |
Factorials | |
FACT | Returns the Factorial of a given number |
FACTDOUBLE | Returns the Double Factorial of a given number |
MULTINOMIAL | Returns the Multinomial of a given set of numbers |
Miscellaneous | |
BASE | Converts a number into a text representation, with the supplied base (New in Excel 2013) |
DECIMAL | Converts a text representation of a number in a specified base into a decimal number (New in Excel 2013) |
COMBIN | Returns the number of combinations for a given number of objects |
COMBINA | Returns the number of combinations (with repetitions) for a given number of items (New in Excel 2013) |
ARABIC | Converts a Roman numeral to an Arabic numeral (New in Excel 2013) |
ROMAN | Returns a text string depicting the roman numeral for a given number |
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